URL: https://www.engineeringforchange.org/news/2014/04/09/ventilation_may_matter_as_much_as_stoves_for_fresh_kitchen_air.html

Humanitarian Engineering for Development Workers ERE 496 student Thomas Decker discusses solutions to help reach Millennium Development Goals 4 (reduce child mortality), 5 (improve maternal health), 6 (combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases), and 7 (ensure environmental sustainability).

On April 9, 2014 Engineering for Change (E4C) posted an article titled “Ventilation may matter as much as stoves for fresh kitchen air,” filed under the health and structures section of their website. The article explains the lack of ventilation in indoor spaces throughout the world and how creative ventilation solutions can provide, “…powerful, life-saving effects in developing countries where women and children cook over open wood fires” (Goodier, 2014). Often times organizations who distribute improved stoves disregard ventilation even though poorly ventilated dwellings can have pollution levels more than 100 times higher than accepted. The article summarizes with a brief statement that I believe can have a large impact; “Ventilation does not require a change in cooking habits, or a physical object to be bought or given and it can be highly customized” (Goodier, 2014). The specific issue that the article focuses on is the decreased quality of life that is a result of low quality air indoors. Low quality air is a contributing factor to respiratory illness worldwide and as written in the article, leads to the death of over 2 million people each year (lung cancer, pneumonia, COPD). There is even more validity in the argument that the article makes as seen in a March 2014 update where the World Health Organization listed that over 4 million die prematurely from illness attributable to household air pollution and more than 50% of premature deaths among children under 5 are due to pneumonia from airborne particulate matter (WHO, 2014). In a specific case, The World Bank lists that in 2012 in Jordan, 77.2% of children under 5 who entered a health clinic had an acute respiratory infection (ARI) (WorldBank, 2014). I believe that ventilation technologies/solutions can have an enormous impact upon these statistices and drastically reduce them in a short period of time. Ventilation would reduce air pollution and directly lead to improved lung and eye function of all members of a household. Ventilation methods are flexible and are appropriate given the implementation strategy. In many cases, there may be no cost to the solution and required labor would come from the homeowners themselves. Ventilation requires no change in culture or cooking habits and the design can be creatively formed to reduce maintenance or ease of construction. Maintenance would be relatively low, with cleaning of the pathway as necessary.

On a broader scale, ventilation can help attain four different Millenium Development Goals through reducing child mortality, improving maternal health, combating HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases, and ensuring environmental sustainability. In low and middle income countries there is an appreciable population attributable fraction of 36% that are affected by indoor air pollution which connects to the need for ventilation to improve the four above mentioned categories (Mihelcic, 2009). Ranked fourth out of the top ten risk factors contributing to burden of disease in 2000, indoor smoke from solid fuels can be alleviated by creating a passage within a home to allow for smoke to escape (Mihelcic, 2009). The idea and concept of ventilation technologies will encourage circulation of air back into the environment and reduce greenhouse gas and particulate matter within a home. Mollie (2013) describes in her study how even when an improved stove was implemented, the air quality decreased by 10-30 % because of a lack of ventilation. Her research continued by concluding that with ventilation, carbon monoxide and very small particulate matter could be reduced by 50%.

An alternative technology to solely ventilation which improves air quality is an improved stove. Improved stoves have the capacity to produce heat efficiently, reduce fuel usage, and reduce indoor air pollution. By burning hotter and more efficiently, improved stoves burn cleaner and emit less particulate matter (Mihelcic, 2009). Instead of being considered more or less appropriate than ventilation solutions, improved stoves should work alongside ventilation. Types of improved stoves vary with some requiring a higher capital cost, but an improved stove is relatively inexpensive. Most stoves can be implemented immediately upon purchase and require little labor unless the homeowner prefers to build his/her own. Over time a stove needs to be maintained and cleaned to ensure combustion efficiency. Designs vary and some examples are the rocket stove, lorena stove, improved plancha, Ghana wood, and mud stove. However, improved stoves have the tendency to be neglected after installation because of cultural issues and the required change of cooking habits. In order to encourage success in implementation, culture is a primary issue to consider.

Figure 1 - This time series shows the the time that women spend in kitchens and how important ventilation is (DEMAND, Fall 2013).

Figure 1 – This time series shows the the time that women spend in kitchens and how important ventilation is (DEMAND, Fall 2013).

 

 

Figure 2 - A smoke hood design to increase ventilation (DEMAND, Fall 2013).

Figure 2 – A smoke hood design to increase ventilation (DEMAND, Fall 2013).

 

Figure 3 - A lorena stove design to improve air pollution through controlled combustion and ventilation (Mihelcic, 2009).

Figure 3 – A lorena stove design to improve air pollution through controlled combustion and ventilation (Mihelcic, 2009).

 

Figure 4 - A rocket stove design that improves heat efficiency but lacks ventilation improvement (Mihelcic, 2009).

Figure 4 – A rocket stove design that improves heat efficiency but lacks ventilation improvement (Mihelcic, 2009).

Bibliography

Goodier, R. (2014, April 9). Ventilation may matter as much as stoves for fresh kitchen air. Engineering for Change.

Mihelcic, J. (2009). Field Guide to Environmental Engineering for Development Workers. Reston: American Society of Civil Engineers.

Ruth, M. (2013). Kitchen 2.0: Design Guidance for Healthier Cooking EnvironmentsI. International Journal For Service Learning in Engineering Humanitarian Engineering and Social Entrepreneurship, 151-169.

WHO. (2014, March). Household Air Pollution and Health. Retrieved April 19, 2014, from Media Centre: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs292/en/

WorldBank. (2014). ARI Treatment. Retrieved April 19, 2014, from Data – The World Bank: http://search.worldbank.org/quickview?name=ARI+treatment+%28%25+of+children+under+5+taken+to+a+health+provider%29&id=SH.STA.ARIC.ZS&type=Indicators&cube_no=2&qterm=respiratory

 

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