Archive for March, 2019

Water Resources Engineering (WRE) connects to economic, environmental, and societal issues. Our student Anna Kauppert makes this connection in Mexico City, Mexico. This current event was reported in New York Times, on February 17, 2017, under the title, “Mexico City, Parched and Sinking, Faces a Water Crisis”, by Michael Kimmelman. This news is unlikely to be “fake” news as it is also reported on in many other publications, one of which is an article by Jonatan Godines Madrigal in the Proceedings of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (PIAHS) journal.

Mexico City has a long history of water problems, since it was built on a series of lakes. When the area was first taken by the Spaniards, they drained the lakes and built over the ground completely. This has led to a history of floods and a lingering need to import water. Adding to the story is the ground the city is built on. The land in the area is a mix of clay and volcanic soil that interact with water differently. Because of these differences and their uneven mixture, as the water table below the city is lowered from pumping out water, the ground above settles unevenly. This interaction between ground and water, and the need to import water from elsewhere to provide for the citizens, is how the Mexico City water crises is related to water resource engineering. This dilemma is important for WRE because it provides a challenge that is important to resolve. Humans will not cease to require water or group together in cities, so providing adequate water supplies in any environment is an important thing to be able to do. One thing that was missing from this article was if there are any other untapped water sources in the area.

Mexico’s water problems affect every aspect of the community living in and around the city. Economically, water and its delivery has become a highly valued product, with deliveries costing many people the bulk of their income because they cannot rely on their tap water both in having water in the system and having usable water in the system. Environmentally, the lack of water and the resources that go into importing water are concerning. The complete depletion of the aquifer underneath Mexico City has wide-reaching impacts beyond simply the lack of water for residents as that’s where most cities obtain their water from (Godinez). It affects the round stability and interferes with the natural water cycle of the area. The importing of water from other sources also causes disruption to those sites it’s coming from as well as all the intervening sites as the infrastructure must be put in place and maintained in order to continue to transport water. Socially, the water crisis further widens the gap between classes due to the high cost of obtaining water in the city and the needed infrastructure to transport it. That infrastructure is not as upkept if it is present at all in the poorer areas of the city and the less well-off residents must pay more to obtain water in the outskirts as well as needing to spend time transporting it the final way to their houses.


Figure 1: Some residents rely on “pipas,” large trucks with hoses that deliver water from aquifers


Kimmelman, M. (2017, February 17). Mexico City, Parched and Sinking, Faces a Water Crisis.   Retrieved from    city-sinking.html

Madrigal, J. G., Zaag, P. V., & Cauwenbergh, N. V. (2018). A half-baked solution: Drivers of      water crises in Mexico. Proceedings of the International Association of Hydrological      Sciences, 376, 57-62. doi:10.5194/piahs-376-57-2018

Water Resources Engineering (WRE) connects to economic, environmental, and societal issues. Our student Michael Bernal makes this connection in London, United Kingdom. This current event was reported in WIRED UK, on December 2, 2018, under the title, London’s Super Sewer won’t solve the city’s epic poop problem, by Sanjana Varghese. This WRE event is likely accurate and not fake news because BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation), one of the most prominent sources of broadcasting in the UK, created a three-part documentary of the sewer project calling it “The biggest infrastructure project ever attempted by the UK water industry.”

Currently, the sewer system in London dumps over 39 million tons of raw sewage into the Thames River each year, meaning this Water Resources Engineering project is a big development in wastewater treatment. The complete renovation of a major city’s sewage infrastructure is important for the WRE field to consider because the world’s population is continuing to grow. Thus, more and more sewage will be generated and the need to effectively treat that sewage will become essential for sustainability. Although the article explains the economic, environmental, and societal issues related to the Super Sewer, it lacks in explaining how the government will improve the wastewater treatment plant facilities to accommodate an extra 39 million tons of sewage flow each year (and growing). The new Super Sewer is designed to transport the combined storm water, wastewater, and raw sewage to existing treatment facilities. However, the question arises whether the UK’s current treatment plants are able to handle this expected flow along with the extra flow from a population increase.

The amount of concrete, tax increases, and construction traffic are key environmental, economic, and societal impacts of the Super Sewer and relate to the people of the UK. Positive environmental impacts of the project include a 94% reduction of Combined Sewage Overflows (CSO) and a healthier river ecology in the Thames (Five Billion 2018). The negative environmental impacts estimate removing 5 million tons of chalk, gravel, and clay from the ground, and using over 840,000 tons of concrete to line the Super Sewer through the heart of London. The public was concerned about the societal impact of heavy machinery present in London for five years. There was public outcry about additional smog, loud noise, and traffic blocks. The UK government responded, stating although some construction traffic is expected to clog city streets, 90% of the materials used to build the sewer will be transported by boat along the Thames. Economic impacts of this project are also hefty. The five-year project will require £4.2 billion, most of which will be passed onto taxpayers. Not only that, but the UK government may consider requiring grease traps under restaurants and homes, a solution to an expensive grease/oil clogging issue that has been ongoing in the country’s sewers since their first implementation. Outdated sewer systems are not only an issue in the UK, but all over the world as well, including New York City. A report from Polytechnic University (Protopapas 1999) states the city has long recognized that CSO’s affect the water quality of the New York Harbor, particularly at tributary bays and inlets. An overhaul of the city’s sewers created similar issues to those in London, including a $197.2 million cost and construction traffic disruption. London’s new Super Sewer can be simplified to a cause and effect relationship, noting the cause as an outdated sewer system that pollutes their rivers, and the effect as the complete overhaul of the system by building the new Super Sewer.


Figure 1: Construction of London’s Super Sewer. Soon to be finished in 2021, this new sewer system will prevent over 39 million tons of Combined Sewage Overflows (CSO) into the Thames River each year. The Super Sewer is the largest wastewater project ever completed by the UK.


Protopapas, A.L. Water Resources Management (1999) 13: 133. Accessed January 17, 2019.

The Five Billion Pound Super Sewer documentary series commissioned by BBC Two -Media Centre. BBC. Published June 15, 2018. Accessed January 17, 2019

Varghese S. London’s super sewer won’t solve the city’s epic poop problem. WIRED. Published December 3, 2018. Accessed January 17, 2019.

Water Resources Engineering (WRE) connects to economic, environmental, and societal issues. Our student Alicia Bateman makes this connection in Chennai, India. This current event was reported in a Syracuse University lecture, on March 7, 2019, under the title, “Treatise on Qanat Water Systems in India, by V. Govindan Kutty”. The work of Qanat conservation and reutilization in Bidar is additionally documented by the Deccan Heritage Foundation.

A Qanat, also called a Karez in India, is a technology often described as an underground aqueduct that was initially developed to drain water from copper mines. It was later used to harvest and transport water for irrigation and drinking. The Qanat are constructed by first digging a bir al-umm, or mother well, into an aquifer. Then, a horizontal shaft is dug at a very slight downward slope in the direction that the water will flow. Every 20 meters a vertical shaft is dug, called an air shaft. These shafts serve as points of access as well as means to remove material during construction. There are currently 38,000 functional Qanat systems in Iran, and 38 countries around the world have working systems. The longest system in Iran is 80 km long, reaching depths of 200-300 feet. They are typically found in arid regions and are found throughout the Deccan Plateau in India. The city of Bidar in central India has three such Qanats which were constructed in the 15th century AD. In the recent past, knowledge of these water systems was lost as they accumulated sediment and solid wastes. Professor Govindan Kutty, assistant professor of Geography at the Government College in Chittoor, is working to solve water insecurity in Bidar by reconnecting the residents to the Neubad Karez.

The current effort to reintegrate the Qanat traditional water system to the city of Bidar works to preserve the cultural heritage of the area as well as supply water to urban and agricultural areas. The Neubad Karez Conservation efforts started as a grassroots movement with support from local residents looking for ways to source water for their homes and agriculture. The efforts have identified recharge zones, groundwater potential zones, pollution sources, and developed a conservation plan. Water hasn’t stopped flowing through the Qanat since it was cleared in 2016. This work connects to water resources engineering by preserving and highlighting some early water conveyance technology, which allowed urban areas to grow further from the coasts and rivers, as well as acting as a relevant and working water distribution system. This project is serving the residents of Bidar, but is also being showcased internationally as an example of traditional engineering continuing to be successful in the modern age. It is important to be able to look into the history of water resource engineering for guidance, learned lessons, and sometimes, complete solutions. The lecture could have been expanded by discussing how the Qanat system is likely to respond to climate change and drier seasons in the future.

This conservation work is creating positive economic, environmental, and societal impacts in the Bidar area. The clearing of the Qanat has impacted the area economically because of agriculture. Farmers are able to use the water from the Qanat for irrigation of their fields. The area around Bidar has many sugarcane farms, and this crop requires a lot of water. Now that the system is bringing water into the area again, the farmers are able to irrigate more easily. The restoration of the Qanat relates to environmental issues in the area because as the residents are realizing the value of the system, they are unlikely to pollute it. Also, the government has created some legislation to protect the recharge sites of the Qanat from contamination. The project also has huge societal impacts. While the channel brings water for drinking, the effort of the rehabilitation was carried out by residents of the area. Most of the clearing of the channel was done by community volunteers and a community organization has developed to support the work of the reconstruction. This project directly benefits the community and the community has responded by working towards its success and expansion. The article “Harvesting Water and Harnessing Cooperation: Qanat Systems in the Middle East and Asia” by the Middle East Institute discusses the benefits of the Qanat system. The article makes the point that integrating Qanats with modern water technology will help to provide water to communities in a sustainable and environmentally friendly way. The article is also hopeful that the reintegration of this technique will increase water security in arid regions. With increased urbanization and changing climates, looking towards more sustainable and resilient water sources, such as the Qanat, is essential.

This revisited technology is showing India and the world the importance of looking to the past for solutions. In a time when water insecurity is prevalent, decentralized water systems can help ease demand on the centralized systems. The Indian city of Chennai is currently facing a severe water crisis, where the daily water demands of the city cannot be met by municipal sources. In order to meet demand, private companies truck water in from outside the city limits and sell it at higher prices. While Qanats may not be a viable solution for this city, the idea of multiple water sources to increase security is applicable. Chennai and other urban areas in India should be building a future that increases water security through both new and traditional technologies.

A rehabilitated section of the Bidar Qanat. The color change on the walls indicates the level that the channel was silted to before the restoration cleared the channel. Water has continually flowed through the system since the removal of solid wastes and sediments in 2016. (Photo taken by Surendra Kumar)


Govindan Kutty, V. “Rethinking Urban Sustainability in India: Treatise on Qanat Water Systems in India.” Lecture, Maxwell School of Citizenship at Syracuse University, Syracuse, March 7 2019.

Govindan Kutty V. Treatise on Qanat Water Systems in India. Rethinking Urban Sustainability in India. March 2019.

Nagaraj A. India is suffering the ‘worst water crisis in its history’. World Economic Forum. Published November 12, 2018. Accessed March 7, 2019.

Rehabilitation of Qanat/Karez system of Bidar (Karnataka). Deccan Heritage Foundation.  Accessed March 7, 2019.

Various. Harvesting Water and Harnessing Cooperation: Qanat Systems in the Middle East and Asia. Middle East Institute. Published January 18, 2014. Accessed March 8, 2019.

Water Resources Engineering (WRE) connects to economic, environmental, and societal issues. Our student Bobby DeMilio makes this connection in Moscow, Russia. This current event was reported in Circle of Blue, on April 12th, 2018, under the title, “Pollutants and Heavy Metals Taint Moscow’s Water Supply,” by Kayla Ritter. This is likely to be a reputable source because a case study highlights the impact of pollutants in Moscow. This study was completed by V.A. Vladimirov and can be found here.

Due to Moscow being Russia’s biggest city, many case studies and articles were written to demonstrate the severity of the problem.

Water quality and contamination issues surround Moscow’s concern for their citizens. In 2013, the company Greenpeace analyzed water quality involving water quality consultants and water treatment specialists to identify contaminates present in Moscow’s main water supply, the Moskva River. Alongside the water quality specialists, another WRE sub disciplines included geotechnical engineers to provide soil cores around the contamination area (Ritter et. al, 2018). Since this river serves as the main water supply of the city of Moscow, there is a major concern for the safety of its citizens. A prompt, and thorough investigation is required by water resource engineering professions to find a solution. The article examined from above includes many details on the past and present issues of Moscow’s water quality subjects, but does not hint at any ways scientists plan to take action in solving this problem, making the future contamination issues unclear.

Economic, environmental, and societal issues surround this unfortunate event that plague the citizens of Moscow. Environmentally, along with the contamination in the Moskva and Volga rivers, the groundwater below the capitol city has been contaminated as well. According to a survey from 2009, Russia’s own citizens named it as “The country’s most serious environmental issue” (Ritter et. al, 2018). Economically, this is a vast remediation project not only to sanitize Moscow’s drinking water, but to improve the efficiency and cleanliness of its water distributions systems and sanitization. The estimated cost to implement the project was 666.94×109 roubles coming from federal and city budgets. Societal difficulties include the reliable access to clean drinking water for its citizens. This can pose a major health concern for citizens not only in Moscow, but surrounding villages as well. This WRE event relates to environmental issues by identifying contaminates and effects unpotable water can have on surrounding environments. Cite remediation and ecological processes can be used to determine cause and effect credentials to help solve this environmental issue. Money is a barrier in any vast project. Since the contamination is obvious throughout the entire city of Moscow, a substantial amount of money will be needed to fund the necessary personnel and equipment to come up with long lasting solutions to clean the water.  In society, known water contamination can cause concern for citizens, mainly from disease. Out of 12 million residents in Moscow, it is estimated that 11 million do not have access to clean drinking water (Ritter et. al, 2018). Dense and growing population in and around Moscow has a major contribution to water quality issues. Furthermore, there is a direct correlation between urbanization and environmental quality metrics (Der Duh, 2019). This cause and effect relationship between urbanization and environmental quality are evident in Moscow. Manmade toxins are entering the water at a greater concentration as industry expands and will continue to dominate until remediation can be conducted.


Figure 1: Moskva River located in the heart of Moscow. This river contains high levels of sulfur, oil aluminum, and other heavy metals that taint the city’s water supply (Ritter, 2018).


Der Duh J, Shandas V, Chang H, George L. Rates of urbanization and the resiliency of air and

water quality. Science of the Total Environment. 2019;400(1-3):238-256. Accessed March 5, 2019.

Ritter KRK, Ritter K, Michigan State University. Pollutants and Heavy Metals Taint Moscow’s

Water Supply. Circle of Blue. Published June 15, 2018. Accessed March 5, 2019.

Vladimirov VA. Case Study X* – Moscow Region, Russia . Case Study X* – Moscow Region,

Russia . Accessed March 5, 2019.

Water Resources Engineering (WRE) connects to economic, environmental, and societal issues. Our student Randal Eblacker makes this connection in Beijing, China. This current event was reported in New Security Beat – The Blog of the Woodrow Wilson Center’s Environmental Change and Security Program, on Monday, November 19th, 2018, under the title, “Recycled Water Could Solve Beijing’s Water Woes, But Implementation Falls Short.”, by Danielle Neighbour. This article is likely to be accurate due to China’s continual efforts to reclaim water in a variety of different ways to mitigate the approaching water crisis. Beijing has constructed wastewater reclamation facilities in efforts to achieve this goal (Yi et al., 2011). The water shortage situation in northern China provides reasoning for water recycling efforts, and how implementations may not be effective.

The capital of China has been in the midst of an ever-growing water crisis, building for multiple decades. Nearby rivers and groundwater reservoirs have nearly been exhausted of their capabilities. Surrounding city’s water supply’s have even been directed to Beijing, but the arid city is still experiencing a water deficit. The city has since turned to recycling treated wastewater in order to meet water supply needs. The wastewater can be treated to a non-potable state, and subsequently used for a variety of applications, such as irrigation and industrial use. If treated further and more rigorously, the water can meet potable-water standards and be consumed. Cities around the world have successfully implemented such systems, but Beijing is struggling to make it work effectively (Neighbour, 2018). This issue mainly relates to water distribution planning and water and wastewater treatment but involves countless other water resource engineering disciplines. Beijing is attempting to provide clean water to its residents and industries, satisfying the fundamental necessity water resource engineers everywhere are trying to fulfill (Chin, 2013). The implementation of wastewater reclamation systems is important to WRE due to the urgency of the issue at hand, clean, safe drinking water for one of the most populated cities in the world. It also explores the ideas of advanced wastewater treatment, ultimately reclaiming otherwise useless water to provide drinking water to the population. The article offers a lot of information regarding how Beijing is attempting to conserve water, and the flaws in their approach, but it does not mention the breakdown of water demand by residential, industrial, and commercial use, which are essential factors to consider.

With this issue comes many other issues, related to economic decisions, environmental degradation, and societal impacts. The cost of wastewater treatment to potable, and even non-potable standards is often out of the land owner’s budget. While reclamation systems tend to return on investment after a period of time, they usually take too long for many to see the benefits. As far as environmental issues, due to the lack of success in water reclamation, the supercity had to turn to using the already overworked reservoirs and nearby streams, thus running the risk of permanently damaging the groundwater reservoirs and significantly altering river flow, thus affecting the stream’s ecosystem. Societal issues are also prevalent due to the lack of centralized water reclamation systems that exist. Many decentralized systems exist at industries and complexes that can afford it, low income residential areas that can’t afford such systems are stuck facing the water shortage dilemma. A study found that despite China having a relatively low ecological footprint, the abundance of materials was not being considered. A large ecological footprint implies that a community’s economic growth directly affects its environmental degradation. Since China had massive economic growth and high resource availability and accessibility, its ecological footprint appears to be low. As consumption of goods continues at a quick rate, and resource depletion follows, China’s ecological footprint will soon catch up with them (Hubacek et al., 2009). The rapid depletion of ground and surface water in northern China must be addressed soon, and treated with urgency, or this massive city will face serious ramifications.


Figure 1: Residents of Beijing filling up on the ever-draining drinking water. The crisis continues as the reservoirs perpetually dry and other cities support simply isn’t enough (Xia, 2014). Wastewater reclamation could prove to be a viable option, but the infostructure must be funded and put in place correctly.


Chin, D. A, (2013), Water Resources Engineering Third Edition, Pearson.

Hubacek, Klaus., Guan, Dabo., Barrett, John., Wiedman, Thomas. Environmental Implications

Of Urbanization and Lifestyle Change in China: Ecological and Water Footprints.

Journal of Cleaner Production. May 8, 2009. Accessed March

3, 2019.

Neighbour, Danielle. Recycled Water Could Solve Beijing’s Water Woes, But Implementation

Falls Short. New Security Beat. November 19, 2018.

implementation-falls-short-2/. Accessed March 3, 2019.

Xia, Li. Water in Beijing Scarce, and Getting Scarcer. The Epoch Times. February 6, 2014.

gettingscarcer_490688.html. Accessed March 3, 2019.

Yi, Lili., Jiao, Wentao., Chen, Xiaoning., Chen, Weiping. An Overview of Reclaimed Water

Reuse in China. Journal of Environmental Sciences. July 4, 2011. Accessed March

3, 2019.

Water Resources Engineering (WRE) connects to economic, environmental, and societal issues. Our student Joseph Lombardi makes this connection in Dhaka, Bangladesh. This current event was reported in ScienceDaily, on September 28th, 2016, under the title, “Water crisis in Bangladesh”, by Karen B. Roberts. This event has been validated by multiple sources, including an organization that is a part of the UN known as Food and Agriculture Organization, who have highlighted Dhaka’s situation in a regional report, and have evaluated the country of Bangladesh’s current water status.

Over-exploitation of water resources is a commonality for mega-cities such as Dhaka, Bangladesh. Within the last 50 years, Dhaka’s groundwater levels have dropped over 200 feet, and continue to decline over 9 feet per year. This rapid decline has created a city-wide drought, particularly during cooler, monsoon-free seasons. If this wasn’t enough of a problem, water quality in Dhaka has quickly deteriorated within recent years as naturally occurring arsenic has infected the city’s limited groundwater supply (Roberts, 2016). In the country of Bangladesh, over 90% of the population receives its water from the weakened groundwater supply, and 60% of the population must intake unsafe drinking water regularly (Hedrick, n.d.). The lack of available and potable drinking water in Dhaka violates one of the essential guidelines of water resources engineering, by not equipping human life with an adequate quantity and quality of safe drinking water (Chin, 2013). The growing concern about the water supply and quality in Dhaka relates on a continental scale to the rest of Asia. Bangladesh, India, Mongolia, China and several developing countries on the continent, have all reported cases of arsenic poisoning within their populations, making this a widespread challenge for the WRE community to tackle within the coming years (Wang & Wai, 2004). While the article was able to identify several reasons for the spread of arsenic in Dhaka’s water supply, Roberts fails to adequately pinpoint possible solutions that would alleviate the arsenic concentrations in the groundwater.


Figure 1: A Bangladesh man who has succumb to arsenic poisoning is pictured. This man is one of 30-35 million people in Bangladesh who have accumulated arsenic poisoning. Arsenic has been shown to be the cause of death for 1 out of every 5 people in Bangladesh (Hedrick, n.d.)

Economic, environmental and societal issues are key features to evaluate when discussing the existing water crisis in Dhaka, such as commercial interests in groundwater, the future of Dhaka’s produce, and political bias of potable water availability. About 80% of Bangladesh’s water supply is utilized by agriculture (Hedrick, n.d.). So, when agriculture in Bangladesh shifted from using ponds and tanks to utilizing healthier, safer groundwater sources in the 1970s, it gained the attention of drilling companies that saw an opportunity for profit. Over the following three decades, millions of tube wells were created by commercial companies attempting to get their share of the new, valued commodity. For a brief time, this proved to not be an issue for Bangladesh. In fact, morbidity and mortality rates halved in the years following the increased availability of groundwater. But as quick as things improved, issues began to return for Bangladesh. Something, which at the time they didn’t know was arsenic, started to fluctuate the morbidity and mortality rates past where they were previously in the 1970s (nbctadmin, 2016). Unfortunately, Bangladesh had begun reaching deeper and deeper depths of their groundwater supply, which resulted in them finally reaching the point where naturally occurring arsenic exists, which is a little above 150 feet (Roberts, 2016). As a result of the commercial interests by drilling companies, Bangladesh’s and Dhaka’s groundwater supplies were over-exploited to the point where arsenic was reached, which put Dhaka in the current water shortage and water quality situation they are experiencing today. Lowering water tables and infecting groundwater supply has had powerful impacts on the future of produce in Dhaka. With a weakened water supply, Dhaka’s soil quality has begun deteriorating, which directly effects Bangladesh’s main population, farmers, and their ability to produce crops. Crop and floral fauna growth rates have largely decreased, while health hazards from crop ingestion has proliferated. The lowered water tables have also reduced dry season rivers and outlets, which in turn hurts local ecosystems and makes fishing a significant challenge for fishermen (FAO, 2011). Without finding a solution to Dhaka’s water crisis, the city and the country’s main produce will continue to thin year by year.  Politics have played a crucial role in determining who and where should receive the remaining safe drinking water in Dhaka. Richard Pearshouse’s article called “The politics of arsenic-free water” attributes Bangladesh’s failure to treat the country’s water crisis, to the political ties within the country’s society. He explains that deeper wells at 150 meters would usually provide safe drinking water, but the government isn’t willing to pay the large expenses for such an endeavor. Instead, politicians will portion the available drinking water onto their own properties. A quote Pearshouse received from a government official who wanted to remain anonymous, stated that “If the member of parliament gets 50% (of the new allocation) and the upazila (sub-district) chairman gets 50%, there’s nothing left to be installed in the areas of acute need.” With the governments lack of concern for the people of Bangladesh and Dhaka, it forces the poorer, lower status citizens to rely on their local contaminated wells, which will only continue to worsen Dhaka’s arsenic problem. The problems with Dhaka’s water supply and quality function as a cause and effect with the economic, environmental, and social issues that impact Dhaka. Because of the overconsumption of water caused by commercial drilling companies, it resulted in the effect that Dhaka’s groundwater became significantly lowered and contaminated. As a result of the political injustices occurring in Dhaka, the effect exists that the water crisis will only worsen as poorer citizens will continue to utilize more ground water, and will continue to be poisoned. Due to Dhaka’s water shortage and quality crisis, Dhaka’s agricultural and fishing produce will lessen as an effect.


Chin, D.A, (2013), Water-Resources Engineering Third Edition, Pearson.

FAO . Bangladesh Regional Report. Food And Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Published 2014. Accessed February 27, 2019.

Hedrick S. WATER IN CRISIS – SPOTLIGHT ON BANGLADESH. The Water Project. Accessed February 27, 2019.

nbctadmin. How Bangladesh Is Drinking Itself To Death. NBCT Charity. Published June 4, 2016. Accessed February 27, 2019.

Pearshouse R. The politics of arsenic-free water. Dhaka Tribune. Published March 15, 2017. Accessed February 27, 2019.

Wang JS, Wai CM. Arsenic in Drinking Water—A Global Environmental Problem. Journal of Chemical Education. 2004;81(2):207. doi:10.1021/ed081p207.